Metabolic Syndrome

Many modern day diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, lipid abnormalities, hypertension, PCOS, cancers, autoimmune diseases etc., are on the rise and striking younger population. Some of these have been clustered together as Metabolic Syndrome. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia and leptin resistance are at the core of these disorders.

Emerging Evidence

  • Binge Eating More Likely to Lead to Metabolic Syndrome in Men [Abstract | Report]
  • Liver, insulin and obesity [See]
  • Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome associated with Impaired Brain Function in Adolescents [See Pediatrics | Report | Report]
  • Diet Alone or With Exercise Improves Metabolic Syndrome. Nancy A. Melville for Medscape [See]
  • Metabolic Syndrome May be Due to Disease Causing Fat Cells: UC Davis Health System researchers have reported a novel observation that subcutaneous fat of MetS has increased macrophage recruitment with cardinal crown-like structure features and contributes to the increased cellular inflammation that produces increased levels of biomarkers that are correlated with both insulin resistance and low-grade inflammation. [Bremer AA et al. Adipose Tissue Dysregulation in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism August 24, 2011 jc.2011-1577. Abstract | Report]
  • Metabolic Syndrome Increases Risk of Kidney Disease: MetS and its components are associated with the development of eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and microalbuminuria or overt proteinuria, a meta analysis shows. [Thomas G et al. Metabolic Syndrome and Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. CJASN August 2011 CJN.02180311.Abstract]
  • Metabolic Syndrome Increases Risk of Open Angle Glaucoma: Components of metabolic syndrome, including diabetes mellitus and systemic arterial hypertension, either alone or in combination, are associated with higher risk of open-angle glaucoma. [Newman-Casey PA et al. The Relationship Between Components of Metabolic Syndrome and Open-Angle Glaucoma. Ophthalmology July 2011;118(7):1318-1326. Abstract]
  • Metabolic syndrome increases kidney stone risk: Data from 34,895 individuals who underwent general health screening tests has revealed that kidney stones were 25% more likely to be found in subjects with metabolic syndrome than in those without it and that kidney stones were 47% more likely to be found in subjects with hypertension than in those without it. [In Gab Jeong et al. Association Between Metabolic Syndrome and the Presence of Kidney Stones in a Screened Population. AJKD. Article in press. Abstract]
  • Metabolic Syndrome and GERD linked: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), has a strong correlation with risk of metabolic syndrome, according to a cross-sectional study conducted in 100 patients. In the study, 50% of those with elevated 24-hour acid levels versus 20% of those without pathologically elevated acid, had metabolic syndrome. [See Report | Earlier Reports: Park JH et al.Metabolic syndrome is associated with erosive esophagitis World J Gastroenterol. 2008;14(35):5442–5447. | Kallel L. Metabolic syndrome is associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease based on a 24-hour ambulatory pH monitoring. Diseases of the Esophagus April 2011;24(3):153–159./a> | Ierardi E et al. Metabolic syndrome and gastro-esophageal reflux: A link towards a growing interest in developed countries. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. 2010;1(3):91-96. Chung SJ. Oesophagus Metabolic syndrome and visceral obesity as risk factors for reflux oesophagitis: a cross-sectional case–control study of 7078 Koreans undergoing health check-ups. Gut2008;57:1360-1365. | Lee Y-C. The effect of metabolic risk factors on the natural course of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease Gut 2009;58:174-181]
  • Improved outcomes associated with metformin therapy in patients with diabetes and heart failure: A two year follow-up study has found that metformin use in ambulatory patients with diabetes and heart failure improves outcome, contrary to what was believed. [David Aguilar et al. Metformin Use and Mortality in Ambulatory Patients with Diabetes and Heart Failure CIRCHEARTFAILURE.110.952556 October 15, 2010. doi: 10.1161/CIRCHEARTFAILURE.110.952556 Abstract | Report]
  • Apple Or Pear-Shaped Body Type Equally Dangerous: A study of 220,000 people suggests that being obese – having a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or more – is a major risk factor for heart disease, but found the distribution of fat on the body has no impact on that risk. [The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration Separate and combined associations of body-mass index and abdominal adiposity with cardiovascular disease: collaborative analysis of 58 prospective studies. The Lancet. 11 March 2011. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60105-0 Full Text | Report]
  • Metabolic Syndrome Increases Age Related Memory Loss: A French study reports that several components of metabolic syndrome may be associated with age related cognitive decline [Abstract – Neurology February 8, 2011 vol. 76 no. 6 518-525]
  • Imbalanced diet and inadequate exercise may underlie asthma in children: Metabolic syndrome markers correlate with asthma, new study reveals. [See Report]
  • Chronic exposures to Bisphenol A, widely used in epoxy resins lining food and beverage containers, may lead to diabetes and cardiovascular events. See Full Text Article in JAMA | Report
  • More than half of the world’s population is overweight: See Report
  • Five Stages of Evolving Beta-Cell Dysfunction During Progression to Diabetes. Weir GC, Weir SB. Diabetes. 2004;53:S16-S21. [See]
  • Homocysteine and reactive oxygen species in metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and atheroscleropathy: The pleiotropic effects of folate supplementation. Hayden MR, Tyagi SC. Nutrition Journal 2004;3:4. [See]
  • High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome. Guven A et al. Angiology. 2006:57(3):295-302. [See]
  • The Metabolic Syndrome and Concentrations of C-Reactive Protein Among U.S. Youth.  Ford ES et al. Diabetes Care 2005;28:878-881. [See]
  • Metabolic origins and clinical significance of LDL heterogeneity. Berneis KK, Krauss RM. J Lipid Res. 2002;43:1363-1379. [See]
  • Childhood Obesity Alone May Increase Risk of Later Cardiovascular Disease: Being obese by as early as 7 years of age may raise a child’s risk of future heart disease and stroke, even in the absence of other cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure, according to a new study accepted for publication in The Endocrine Society’s Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (JCEM). Abstract | Report in Science Daily |Report in Modern Medicine
  • Premature Death Awaits Obese Kids: Paul W. Franks et al., New Eng Journal Med., 11 February 2010 | Business Week Report
  • Reduction of body fat more important than fitness in lowering blood pressure: Individuals who have a healthy body weight are more likely than those who are physically fit to have lower blood pressure, shows a new study [Chen J, Das S, Barlow CE, Grundy S, Lakoski SG. Fitness, fatness, and systolic blood pressure: data from the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. Am Heart J. 2010 Jul;160(1):166-70.] [Abstract] | Report]
  • Inflammation and insulin resistance. Carl de Luca, Jerrold M. Olefsky FEBS Letters. January 2008;582(1):97-105, 9. [See]
  • From individual risk factors and the metabolic syndrome to global cardiometabolic risk. Jean-Pierre Després et al. Eur Heart J Suppl March 2008;10 (suppl B):B24-B33. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/sum041 [See]
  • The metabolic syndrome: common origins of a multifactorial disorder. Bruce KD, Byrne CD. Postgrad Med J 2009;85:614-621 doi:10.1136/pgmj.2008.078014 [See]
  • FROM MICE TO MEN: Insights into the Insulin Resistance Syndromes. Sudha B. Biddinger, Ronald Kahn C. Annual Review of Physiology. March 2006;68:123-158. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.physiol.68.040104.124723. [See]


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