May 22

Salt and Disease

Increased consumption of salt, or sodium chloride, in our food has for long been considered as a risk factor for the development of vascular diseases and hypertension. Restriction of salt can help in the prevention of these maladies.



Emerging Evidence

Increased Sodium Increases Cardiovascular Risk: A new, 15-year follow-up study has shown that people with the highest ratio of sodium to potassium in their diet had a significantly increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease compared with those who had the lowest ratio of sodium to potassium intake [Yang Q et al. Sodium and Potassium Intake and Mortality Among US Adults Prospective Data From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Arch Intern Med. 2011;171(13):1183-1191. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2011.257 Abstract | Commentary | Report]

Increased Potassium Consumption Cuts Cardiovascular Risk by 20%: The largest meta-analysis examining the impact of potassium intake on cardiovascular outcomes has found that higher dietary consumption of potassium is associated with lower rates of stroke and could also reduce the risk of coronary heart disease and total cardiovasular disease. [Abstract from D’Elia L, Barba G, Cappuccio FP, et al. Potassium intake, stroke and cardiovascular disease. A meta-analysis of prospective studies. J Am Coll Cardiol 2011;57:1210-1219. | Report]

Projected Effect of Dietary Salt Reductions on Future Cardiovascular Disease: Modest reductions in dietary salt could substantially reduce cardiovascular events and medical costs and should be a public health target. Reducing dietary salt by 3 g per day is projected to reduce the annual number of new cases of CHD by 60,000 to 120,000, stroke by 32,000 to 66,000, and myocardial infarction by 54,000 to 99,000 and to reduce the annual number of deaths from any cause by 44,000 to 92,000 and would save 194,000 to 392,000 quality-adjusted life-years and $10 billion to $24 billion in health care costs annually. Kirsten Bibbins-Domingo et al., Published in N Engl J Med on Jan 20, 2010 [Full Text]

Salt intake, stroke, and cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of prospective studies: High salt intake is associated with significantly increased risk of stroke and total cardiovascular disease Full Text of Pasquale Strazzullo et al., BMJ 2009;339:b4567Report in medpagetoday.com

Cut Down Salt Intake: ASH Position Paper – Dietary Approaches to Lower Blood Pressure: Full Text of Lawrence J. Appel, ASHMedscape Article

Salt a key player in resistant hypertension 
Abstract in Pimenta E et al., Hypertension, 20 July, 2009Report

Salt Restriction Reduces Cardiovascular Disease Risk: See Report | One More Report | One More..

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