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May 22

Sweet Poisons

All that are sweet are poisonous. Sugar (Sucrose=Glucose+Fructose), Fructose (Fruit Sugar), artificial sweeteners – all these are toxic and are at the root of many of the modern day ills. Sweets increase hunger and cause craving, just like alcohol. The result: vicious spiral of metabolic abnormalities.

 

 

 

Here is the evidence

Sugar is Toxic: The growing scientific evidence, both epidemiological and mechanistic, very clearly shows that excess sugar induces all of the diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome, Robert H. Lustig et al write in Nature. See Lustig RH, Schmidt LA, Brindis CD. Public health: The toxic truth about sugar. Nature. 02 February 2012;482:27–29. doi:10.1038/482027a[Link][Full Text][Report | Report | Report | Report]

‘Metabolic syndrome’ in the brain: deficiency in omega-3 fatty acid exacerbates dysfunctions in insulin receptor signalling and cognition. Rahul Agrawal, Fernando Gomez-Pinilla. The Journal of Physiology. May 1, 2012;590:2485-2499. doi: 10.1113/jphysiol.2012.230078. [Full Text] [UCLA Press Release]

Sweetened Beverages Increase Coronary Heart Disease: de Koning L, Malik VS, Kellogg MD, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB. Sweetened Beverage Consumption, Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Biomarkers of Risk in Men. CIRCULATIONAHA.111.067017 doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.067017. [Full Text]

Sugar Consumption Increases Blood Pressure: The recently published INTERMAP study reveals that soft drinks, sweetened fruit juices, and sugar-loaded sports drinks are associated with significant increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressures. [Abstract from Brown IJ, Stamler J, Van Horn L, et al. Sugar-sweetened beverage, sugar intake of individuals and their blood pressure: INTERMAP study. Hypertension Feb 2011. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.110.165456 | Report]

Sweetened Beverages Increase Pancreatic Cancer Risk Mark A. Pereira et al. in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, February 2010 Eva S. Schernhammer et al., in Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, Sep. 2005Report

Energy Drinks Pose Serious Health Risks for Young People: According to a review of scientific literature and Internet sources, published in Pediatrics, energy drinks that contain caffeine, taurine, sugars and sweeteners, herbal supplements etc., are regularly consumed by 30% to 50% of children, adolescents, and young adults and and are associated with risks for serious adverse health effects such as liver damage, kidney failure, respiratory disorders, agitation, confusion, seizures, psychotic conditions, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, rhabdomyolysis, tachycardia, cardiac dysrhythmias, hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure, and death. [See Seifert SM, Schaechter JL, Hershorin ER, Lipshultz SE. Health Effects of Energy Drinks on Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults. Pediatrics. 2011;127:511-528. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2009-3592. Free Full Text | Report]

Diet Soda and Salt Increase the Risk of Stroke: In a new study from the University of Miami’s Miller School of Medicine (Northern Manhattan Study), those who drink diet soda were found to have more than a 60% increase in stroke than those who abstain and those who used more than 4g of sodiun per day had double the risk than those who had less than 1.5g per day. Report | Report | Report]

Sugar sweetened beverages increase the risk of weight gain, development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, meta analysis shows [See Malik VS et al. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care November 2010;33(11):2477-2483 Free Full Text]

Sugar Sweetened Beverages Increase Diabetes Risk With or Without Weight Gain [See Full Text Diabetes CareReport]

Sugar Sweetened Beverages Increase the Risk of Metabolic Syndrome, Diabetes and Obesity Vasanti S. Malik et al. Sugar Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-analysis Diabetes Care. August 2010;33(8) Full Text | Report]

Television Watching and Soft Drink Consumption- Associations With Obesity in 11- to 13-Year-Old Schoolchildren. Giammattei J et al. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2003;157:882-886. [See]

Carbonated Soft Drink Consumption and Bone Mineral Density in Adolescence: The Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project. McGartland C et al. J Bone Miner Res 2003;18:1563–1569. [See]

Aspartame Disease: An FDA-approved Epidemic. Roberts HJ. [See]

Aspartame: A Safe Sweetener? Lawler H, Wylet L. [See]

Independent Analysis of the “Opinion of the European Commission, Scientific Committee on Food: Update on the Safety of Aspartame / E951. Gold MD. [See]

Fructose is Bad:

Dietary fructose linked to metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus: In a new study from Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee, a diet with 30 percent of total energy from fructose was given to 29 adult male rhesus monkeys aged 12 to 20 years for a period of 12 months. Starting at six months and by the end of the 12-month feeding study, ALL (100%) the monkeys developed certain metabolic syndrome components including body adiposity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia and four monkeys (15%) developed type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Bremer AA et al. Fructose-Fed Rhesus Monkeys: A Nonhuman Primate Model of Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Type 2 Diabetes.Clinical and Translational Science. August 2011;4(4):243–252. Full Text | Report]

Increased fructose consumption from fruits increases metabolic syndrome risk: A cross-sectional population based study on 2537 subjects (45% men) aged 19-70 y has shown that higher consumption of dietary fructose may have adverse metabolic effects and increase the risks for metabolic syndrome. [Firoozeh Hosseini-Esfahani et al. Dietary fructose and risk of metabolic syndrome in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study. Nutrition & Metabolism 2011, 8:50 doi:10.1186/1743-7075-8-50 Full text]

Certain Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs) Increase the risk of Complications in Diabetes: New study at the Joslin Diabetes Center has revealed that patients of Type 1 diabetes with higher levels of carboxyethyl-lysine and pentosidine AGEs are 7.2-fold more likely to have any complication. Earlier studies had revealed that these AGEs are linked more to fructose. [Sun JK et al. Protection From Retinopathy and Other Complications in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes of Extreme Duration: The Joslin 50-Year Medalist Study. Diabetes Care 29 March, 2011;34(4):968-974. doi: 10.2337/dc10-1675 Full Text | Mikulíková K, Eckhardt A, Kunes J, Zicha J, Miksík I. Advanced glycation end-product pentosidine accumulates in various tissues of rats with high fructose intake. Physiol Res. 2008;57(1):89-94. Epub 2007 Feb 8. Full text | Krajčovičova-Kudlačkova M, Šebekova K, Schinzel R, Klvanova J. Advanced Glycation End Products and Nutrition. Physiol. Res. 2002;51:313-316. Full text]

Glucose increases and fructose reduces brain activity: A functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study at Oregon Health and Science University has found that infusion of glucose enhances brain cortical activity but fructose infusion has the opposite effect, with reduced activity. While bigger studies are needed to confirm the findings, this may be one of the clues for patterns of our behaviour in general, and food consumption in particular. [Abstract from Purnell JQ et al. Brain functional magnetic resonance imaging response to glucose and fructose infusions in humans Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism March 2011;13(3):229–234. |Report]

Fructose Worsens Gout: Consumption of soft drinks sweetened with sugar and fructose is strongly associated with an increased risk for gout, according to the results of a prospective cohort study reported in the February 1 Online First issue of the BMJ. This was a 12-year follow-up study of 46,393 health professionals without a previous history of gout and the goal was to assess the relationship between consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks and fructose and the risk for incident gout. See Sweet Soft Drinks, Fructose Linked to Increased Risk for Gout. Available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/569656

Gout Linked to Increased Risk for Diabetes, Renal Disease [See]

High fructose intake in the form of added sugar is independently associated with higher blood pressure, according to the results of a cross-sectional analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [Diana I. Jalal, Gerard Smits, Richard J. Johnson and Michel Chonchol. Increased Fructose Associates with Elevated Blood Pressure. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. July 1, 2010. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2009111111][Full text] | Report]

Fructose (Fruit Sugar) is a more important cause for metabolic disorders like diabetes, hypertension, fatty liver disease, obesity

Fructose (Fruits) and High Blood Pressure Abstract of Carlos A. Roncal et al, Am J NephrolReuters Report

Fructose in fruits can increase obesity: A new study reports that when fructose was consumed, absolute lipogenesis was 2-fold greater and that an early stimulation of lipogenesis after fructose, consumed in a mixture of sugars, augments subsequent postprandial lipemia. Acute intake of fructose stimulates lipogenesis and may create a metabolic milieu that enhances subsequent esterification of fatty acids flowing to the liver to elevate TG synthesis postprandially. See Parks EJ, Skokan LE, Timlin MT, Dingfelder CS. Dietary Sugars Stimulate Fatty Acid Synthesis in Adults. J. Nutr. June 2008;138:1039-1046 Abstract

High-fructose corn syrup and the obesity epidemic. Jacobson MF. Am J Clin Nutr. 80(4):1081. [See]

Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. Bray GA, Nielsen SJ, Popkin BM. Am J Clin Nutr. 2004;79(4):537-543. [See]

Fructose-induced hyperuricaemia. Perheentupa J et al. Lancet 1967;2:52831.

Hypothesis: fructose-induced hyperuricemia as a causal mechanism for the epidemic of the metabolic syndrome. Nakagawa T, Tuttle KR, Short RA, Johnson RJ. Nature Reviews Nephrology 2005;1:80-86. [See]

Fructose-induced hyperuricaemia.  Heuckenkamp PU et al. Lancet 1971;1:808-809.

Studies on the mechanism of fructose-induced hyperuricemia in man. Fox IH et al. Metabolism 1972;21:713-721.

Stimulation of human purine synthesis de novo by fructose infusion. Raivio KO et al. Metabolism 1975;24:861-869.

Fructose-induced aberration of metabolism in familial gout identified by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy.  Seegmillr JE et al.PNAS. 1990;87:8326-30. [See]

Fructose, weight gain, and the insulin resistance syndrome. Elliott SS et al. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76(5):911-922. [See]

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